For anyone interested with management and organization, you need to understand that they are closely intertwined and connected. They go together. They complement each other in development of people, system, structures, organizational within the complexity of their environment John Kotter makes the following observations: “Leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action… Both are necessary for success in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment.”(Kotter 1996;84).
Therefore in seeking to understand difference in management and leadership we focus on both the comparisons and similarities.There is a great confusion about the difference between a leader and a manager. While they may seem to be one and the same thing, yet there are differences between leadership and management. I may however agree, that in ever leader, there must be a small aspect of management and for every manager, there must be some aspects of leadership.
Who are Leaders?
Leadership means "the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members."
Leaders inspire people.
In inspiration what leaders do to their follower is they create deep urge that stimulate, motivate, encourage and challenge people to arise up and pursue their purpose and focus on its fulfilling. Inspiration reminds people that there are possibilities in situation and contexts.
In her words Maya affirms that “I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” (Maya Angelou 1997;56). Leaders should make people confident. Quoted by Edel, John Quincy affirms “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.” (Edel,2014;6 ). People need to feel they are valued and we have confidence in their abilities .affirms Leaders innovate and focus on individuals. And further Blanchard affirms the key to successful leadership today is influence, not authority.” (Kenneth Blanchard). As people get inspired they are influenced to accomplish both personal and organizational goals.
Leader’s challenges people professionally and spiritual.
One of the key ingredients of a leaders is they challenge there people. They challenge them psychologically, educationally, professionally and all around to be the best they and offer their best. They challenge people to move from their comfort zones and do impossibilities beyond their imagination. Napoleon asserts that ““Whatever the mind of man can conceive and believe, it can achieve.”(Napoleon Hill 2000; 99). They challenge both moral and character strength.
Leaders provide direction through leadership
Leaders don’t micromanage people or processes. They actually encourage participation in creating and providing direction to people who in turn influence organizations. Drucker wrote. “The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual”( Drucker 1974;45) They share the ideal picture of a desire future. They provoke people to see the need for framework. According Drucker’s assessment, a leader starts by asking, “What needs to be done?” He noted the increasing prominence of “knowledge workers” and suggested that the new challenge is to lead people rather than manage them. As they lead they set the pace and direction which there follower would follow in seeking solutions.
Leaders are transformational.
They are concerned on process and not an event. In transformational concept the leaders would focus on identifying, growing and releasing their follower to lead and facilitate change in there organization. According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation". (James Macgregor Burns 1978; 25). This process involves the leaders taking into consideration the individualized needs, engage in reflection and creative thinking that facilitates intellectual stimulation, inspiration and influences that is contagious to the individuals and organizations.
Leaders influence people and the world
You don’t need to have position to have influence. Being influence means as leader you can use charisma and be able to sway people emotionally and psychologically toward a cause. Leaders influence a person with characters that breeds in their followers a sense of trust and honesty.
According to Maxwell “The bottom line for followers is what a leader is capable of. They want to know whether that person can lead the team to victory. Leadership is influence, nothing more nothing less. Show you can lead a team to victory and you will have shown you can positively influence your followers and organization” (Maxwell 2007;9) Are often called brilliant and mercurial, with great charisma. Yet, they are also often seen as loners and private people. They are comfortable taking risks, sometimes seemingly wild and crazy risks. Almost all leaders have high levels of imagination
Who are Managers.
Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing that group towards accomplishing a goal
Managers solemnly have the vision of the organization
In his influential book “On Becoming a Leader,” published in 1989, Professor Bennis wrote that a successful leader must first have a guiding vision of the task or mission to be accomplished and the strength to persist in the face of setbacks, even failure.” ( Bennis, 1989;100 As a manager you are the fulcrum of the organization and company. All people look up on you to provide the vision. The employees may not share in the vision or the task
Tend to be rational, under control problem solvers. They often focus on goals, structures, personnel, and availability of resources. Managers’ personalities lean toward persistence, strong will, analysis, and intelligence.
Management is about performance.Managers are employed by people and are expected to work for their bosses. According to Belcker” People working for the autocrat believe they are working for someone. Those reporting to the diplomat believe they are working zoit/i someone.”(Belcker 2012;68) And hence the manager people are very interested on the outcomes and results. They would sacrifice everyone to be able to actualize the intended purpose and mission of the company. Performance is motivated by a desire to release good result and hence increase the company visibility and profit in the market
Manager focus on systems and structures.Management is about organizing resources through directing, guiding, recruitment, delegation amongst other actors that enables proper establishment effective systems. They will constantly work hard to improve through branding and marketing. These systems require effective control and being in charge. The performance depends on management.
Managers focus on skills.They believe that the skills are integral components of one’s effectiveness in the organization. The jobs advertisements are based on the type of education, the acquired skills and experience. They would rather pick someone who has an impressive MBA than someone with a diploma. There productivity is assumed to be based on the specific skill individual posses
Managers focus on task.In management there are results, they require skills and also performance. When all these process are directed successfully, what we achieve is completion of a task. In most sitiations these tasks are expressed in form of objectives and mission. The manager must ensure the task is done with all competencies exhibited by the manpower.
In conclusion we have been able to understand that leaders have specific qualities and characters that enhance their influence in leading people. While managers focus on efficiency, skills, performance, results oriented. The most important distinction between leadership and management is that you do not need to be a manager to be a leader, and being a manager does not automatically make you a leader
However we must recognize that the difference between them is based on ideas, principles, and attitudes and focus the hold. While managers work tireless through systems and process that involves control, manipulation for profit and stability for their organization, leaders on the other hand are able to understand people and provide chance and opportunities for them to grow their talents and ability as they transform into champions of change. I believe myself more a lead and less a manager even though I have skills in magament.